http://john-und.sandra-gaertner.de/el-extraterrestre-empata-cuentos-fantsticos.php Feb 23, Dan Gorman rated it liked it. This book. This big old book. It partially confounds me. Fujitani creates a comparative argument, detailing how the Japanese Empire and the United States incorporated hated ethnic minorities - the colonized Koreans and the Japanese Americans, respectively - into their militaries to win World War II. The author reveals many fascinating parallels between the events in both countries, such as that Japanese leaders were inspired in their treatment of Koreans by the way the American government treate This book.
The author reveals many fascinating parallels between the events in both countries, such as that Japanese leaders were inspired in their treatment of Koreans by the way the American government treated its ethnic minorities. Both nations used extensive questionnaires to determine the loyalty of Korean and Japanese American men and see if they were fit for military service. Koreans and Japanese Americans joined the two empires' respective militaries, but had complex reasons for doing so.
Some Koreans felt genuinely patriotic toward Japan, plenty of Japanese Americans felt patriotic toward America, and plenty of coercion, subtle or not, happened in both locations. Finally, many similarities exist between the propaganda films made in Japan during the war, and the films about Japanese American soldiers made in America during and after the war. Fujitani makes a compelling case that the Japanese and American empires, for the sake of obtaining more soldiers, moved from exclusionary racism to a more inclusive racism, even as discriminatory practices like the Japanese internment camps and the use of Korean women as "comfort women" took place.
Where I take issue with the manuscript is Fujitani's reliance on Michel Foucault's ideas of biopower how the state incorporates different populations into the national people and governability how to coerce people into making nominally free choices. Foucault, a hybrid philosopher-historian, did his research for his History of Sexuality project, accumulated data or, at least, historical information , and derived his idea of biopower from that data. All well and good.
Fujitani then opens Chpt. Is Fujitani looking for these ideas in his data — in other words, letting his pre-existing ideas of biopower and governability drive the way he reads his sources? Certainly, we all have ideas swirling around our heads when we read, yet I am concerned that, when one privileges certain concepts as much as Fujitani does, one will look only for evidence that reinforces those concepts.
Instead of deriving philosophical or theoretical ideas from evidence, one winds up selecting evidence based on pre-existing ideas — a data-driven argument, instead of an argument derived from data. I guess if I was writing this book, I would have read up on theory, then set those ideas aside, read primary sources, and afterwards considered where the evidence augmented or supported the theory ideas.
As such, I wonder how much he shaped his argument to live up to the lofty intellectual standards of Michel Foucault. It might apply to English or other literary studies, but it seems that scholars in those fields are more comfortable letting preconceived theories guide their reading. Similarly, in theology, scholars are talking all the time about abstract ideas that pre-exist everything else. Apr 03, Chi Pham rated it it was amazing Shelves: japan , history. Fujitani has done a splendid job as always. By explaining historical incidents, not in convoluted scholarly language but in a brilliant language, without reducing the work to populist tale, Fujitani explains the policies of the US empire towards Japanese Americans and the Japanese empire towards Korean Japanese.
A must-read for Conspiracy fans. Aug 16, Andre rated it did not like it Shelves: history , good-idea-bad-execution. Race for Empire: Koreans as Japanese and Japanese as Americans during World War II Record, this is the second book in three days that I started and stopped because I had no will or time to stomach the auhor's bullshit.
I stopped when he seemed to suggest that Japan was less racist because its navy accepted Koreans in unlike the US. And combine that with prior statements regarding volunteers and he seems to dismiss the actual manpower need of total war and empire building. And these were only Race for Empire: Koreans as Japanese and Japanese as Americans during World War II Record, this is the second book in three days that I started and stopped because I had no will or time to stomach the auhor's bullshit. And these were only the last in a long line of examples. In fact it started very early on when I hoped that the first passage in the preface would not be a harbinger of doom, because it sounds like someone who would dismiss critique at affirmative action as racist, even though it actually discriminates against Asian Americans and apparently very often supports "black" Americans who are not descendents of American slaves.
But sadly, the bad omens kept coming.
Like when I realized that he was using the word "ethnic" as synonym for "ethnic minority;" but at least the author's usage of the word for the relation between Japanese and Koreans, suggested consistency and lack of double standard. Well, in this regard. In other cases I was not so sure. That he mentioned the Nazis and placed them in contrast to the Japanese and Americans was perfect to either show is ignorance or double standard, because despite what he suggests here, the Nazis basically did the same: over the course of the war, they included more and more non-Germans into their armed forces.
The SS alone had thousands of non-Germans among their ranks, not just ethnic Germans from outside Germany as he suggests here. And it did not stop later on. The Nazis also adjusted their rhetoric and to a degree ideology to justify their alliances. And not just the alliance with the Japanese, but they changed it to basically accommodate Turkey, Egypt and Persia.
Among other things as every look into the European axis forces in general and Wehrmacht and SS in specific shows. He also claimed that the Nazis promoted an uncomplicated ideology of racial purity and superiority unlike the Japanese regime That might seem to be the case in popular media but I can assure you that the Nazi racial ideology was anything but uncomplicated, that thing was highly contradictory and often motivated by outside factors. So do not trust this author when it comes to the Nazis.
And too bad for thim: I read Dower's War without Mercy as well! His statements regarding the Nazis were bad enough as it is, also he seems to claim that Japan was not as racist as claimed. Well anyone in the english speaking movie world that is I have seen East Asian ones who straight up portray them as racist. Plus, even by his statements the Japanese were forced into this. And whatever he stated would apply to the Nazis well.
Ignoring the fact that I got some serious apologetics vibes from this book and that it barely, used the term discrimination, what this guy uses several big sentences for could be easily said in one sentence. Only after barely 50 pages or so did he mention the word discrimination. Took him long enough. And maybe that is not his intention, but he sounds as if he wants to claim that the Japanese empire somehow would give Koreans equality instead of having them as second class citizens at best.
In fact, he doesn't just seem to be apologetic about Japan but the USA as well. Or maybe his "big words" just come across as too vague to be sure. At that point I stopped reading and I haven't looked back ever since. May 23, Jessie rated it liked it. Foucault works great with Fujitani they've become almost indistinguishable to me, sInce his first book, Splendid Monarchy. There are definitely virtues e. Gi Foucault works great with Fujitani they've become almost indistinguishable to me, sInce his first book, Splendid Monarchy. Also can we use the same idea of "race" to talk about Koreans and Japanese Americans?
And Koreans have no real voices in his analysis, while Japanese immigrants seem to mostly speak thru US official documents. Since I really liked his first book, I am a bit disappointed this time, but still a provocative read.
Feb 02, Masha rated it really liked it. It is a long book. And since I had to read it for class, I only had 1 week to digest it, which I think is definitely not enough. The main goals of Japan's expansionism were acquisition and protection of spheres of influence, maintenance of territorial integrity, acquisition of raw materials, and access to Asian markets. Western nations, notably Great Britain, France, and the United States, had for long exhibited great interest in the commercial opportunities in China and other parts of Asia.
These opportunities had attracted Western investment because of the availability of raw materials for both domestic production and re-export to Asia. The Great Depression , just as in many other countries, hindered Japan's economic growth.
In parallel case studies--of Japanese Americans mobilized to serve in the United States Army and of Koreans recruited or the U.S. and Japanese empires as they struggled to manage racialized populations while waging total war. Race for Empire Koreans as Japanese and Japanese as Americans during World War II. Race for Empire: Koreans as Japanese and Japanese as Americans during World War II (Asia Pacific Modern) [Takashi Fujitani] on tacidysaze.tk *FREE*.
The Japanese Empire's main problem lay in that rapid industrial expansion had turned the country into a major manufacturing and industrial power that required raw materials; however, these had to be obtained from overseas, as there was a critical lack of natural resources on the home islands. In the s and s, Japan needed to import raw materials such as iron, rubber, and oil to maintain strong economic growth. Most of these resources came from the United States.
The Japanese felt that acquiring resource-rich territories would establish economic self-sufficiency and independence, and they also hoped to jump-start the nation's economy in the midst of the depression. As a result, Japan set its sights on East Asia , specifically Manchuria with its many resources; Japan needed these resources to continue its economic development and maintain national integrity. In , Japan invaded and conquered Northeast China Manchuria with little resistance. Japan claimed that this invasion was a liberation of the local Manchus from the Chinese, although the majority of the population were Han Chinese as a result of the large scale settlement of Chinese in Manchuria in the 19th century.
Jehol , a Chinese territory bordering Manchukuo, was later also taken in This puppet regime had to carry on a protracted pacification campaign against the Anti-Japanese Volunteer Armies in Manchuria. At that time, East Asians were banned from immigration to North America and Australia , but the newly established Manchukuo was open to immigration of Asians. Japan had an emigration plan to encourage colonization; the Japanese population in Manchuria subsequently grew to , Japan invaded China proper in , creating what was essentially a three-way war between Japan, Mao Zedong 's communists, and Chiang Kai-shek 's nationalists.
On December 13 of that same year, the Nationalist capital of Nanjing surrendered to Japanese troops. In the event known as the " Nanjing Massacre ", Japanese troops massacred a large number of the defending garrison. It is estimated that as many as , to , including civilians, may have been killed, although the actual numbers are uncertain and possibly inflated coupled with the fact that the government of the People's Republic of China has never undertaken a full accounting of the massacre.
A puppet state was also set up in China quickly afterwards, headed by Wang Jingwei. This incursion was founded in the Japanese belief that the Soviet Union misinterpreted the demarcation of the boundary, as stipulated in the Treaty of Peking , between Imperial Russia and Manchu China and subsequent supplementary agreements on demarcation , and furthermore, that the demarcation markers were tampered with.
On May 11, , in the Nomonhan Incident Battle of Khalkhin Gol , a Mongolian cavalry unit of some 70 to 90 men entered the disputed area in search of grazing for their horses, and encountered Manchukuoan cavalry, who drove them out. Two days later the Mongolian force returned and the Manchukoans were unable to evict them. Joseph Stalin ordered Stavka , the Red Army 's high command, to develop a plan for a counterstrike against the Japanese.
In late August, Georgy Zhukov employed encircling tactics that made skillful use of superior artillery, armor, and air forces; this offensive nearly annihilated the 23rd Division and decimated the IJA 7th Division. On September 15 an armistice was arranged. Nearly two years later, on April 13, , the parties signed a Neutrality Pact , in which the Soviet Union pledged to respect the territorial integrity and inviolability of Manchukuo, while Japan agreed similarly for the Mongolian People's Republic.
In , Japan prohibited the expulsion of the Jews in Japan, Manchuria , and China in accordance with the spirit of racial equality on which Japan had insisted for many years. With the occupation of French Indochina in the years of —41, and with the continuing war in China, the United States and its allies placed embargoes on Japan of strategic materials such as scrap metal and oil, which were vitally needed for the war effort.
The Japanese were faced with the option of either withdrawing from China and losing face or seizing and securing new sources of raw materials in the resource-rich, European-controlled colonies of Southeast Asia —specifically British Malaya and the Dutch East Indies modern-day Indonesia. Their objectives were to "establish and maintain a new order of things" in their respective world regions and spheres of influence, with Germany and Italy in Europe, and Japan in Asia.
The signatories of this alliance became known as the Axis Powers. The pact also called for mutual protection—if any one of the member powers was attacked by a country not already at war, excluding the Soviet Union —and for technological and economic cooperation between the signatories. Facing an oil embargo by the United States as well as dwindling domestic reserves, the Japanese government decided to execute a plan developed by Isoroku Yamamoto to attack the United States Pacific Fleet in Hawaii. While the United States was neutral and continued negotiating with Japan for possible peace in Asia, the Imperial Japanese Navy at the same time made its surprise attack on Pearl Harbor in Honolulu on December 7, As a result, the U.
The primary objective of the attack was to incapacitate the United States long enough for Japan to establish its long-planned South East Asian empire and defensible buffer zones. The American public saw the attack as barbaric and treacherous and rallied against the Japanese.
Hong Kong surrendered to the Japanese on December The Japanese were quickly able to advance down the Malayan Peninsula , forcing the Allied forces to retreat towards Singapore. The Allies lacked aircover and tanks; the Japanese had total air superiority. By the end of January , the last Allied forces crossed the strait of Johore and into Singapore. In the Philippines , the Japanese pushed the combined American-Filipino force towards the Bataan Peninsula and later the island of Corregidor.
Quezon were forced to flee in the face of Japanese advance. This marked among one of the worst defeats suffered by the Americans, leaving over 70, American and Filipino prisoners of war in the custody of the Japanese. On February 15, , Singapore , due to the overwhelming superiority of Japanese forces and encirclement tactics, fell to the Japanese , causing the largest surrender of British-led military personnel in history.
An estimated 80, Australian, British and Indian troops were taken as prisoners of war , joining 50, taken in the Japanese invasion of Malaya modern day Malaysia. Japanese military strategists were keenly aware of the unfavorable discrepancy between the industrial potential of Japan and the United States. Because of this they reasoned that Japanese success hinged on their ability to extend the strategic advantage gained at Pearl Harbor with additional rapid strategic victories.
The Japanese Command reasoned that only decisive destruction of the United States' Pacific Fleet and conquest of its remote outposts would ensure that the Japanese Empire would not be overwhelmed by America's industrial might. In April , Japan was bombed for the first time in the Doolittle Raid. During the same month, after the Japanese victory in the Battle of Bataan , the Bataan Death March was conducted, where 5, to 18, Filipinos died under the rule of the imperial army.
This setback was followed in June by the catastrophic loss of four fleet carriers at the Battle of Midway , the first decisive defeat for the Imperial Japanese Navy. It proved to be the turning point of the war as the Navy lost its offensive strategic capability and never managed to reconstruct the "'critical mass' of both large numbers of carriers and well-trained air groups". Further victories by the Allies at Guadalcanal in September and New Guinea in put the Empire of Japan on the defensive for the remainder of the war, with Guadalcanal in particular sapping their already-limited oil supplies.
The Palawan massacre was committed by the imperial army against Filipinos in December By , the Allies had seized or bypassed and neutralized many of Japan's strategic bases through amphibious landings and bombardment. This, coupled with the losses inflicted by Allied submarines on Japanese shipping routes, began to strangle Japan's economy and undermine its ability to supply its army.
By early , the US Marines had wrested control of the Ogasawara Islands in several hard-fought battles such as the Battle of Iwo Jima , marking the beginning of the fall of the islands of Japan. After securing airfields in Saipan and Guam in the summer of , the United States Army Air Forces conducted an intense strategic bombing campaign by having B Superfortress bombers in nighttime low altitude incendiary raids, burning Japanese cities in an effort to pulverize Japan's war industry and shatter its morale.
The Operation Meetinghouse raid on Tokyo on the night of March 9—10, , led to the deaths of approximately , civilians. Approximately ,—, civilians died in 67 Japanese cities as a result of the incendiary bombing campaign on Japan. Concurrent with these attacks, Japan's vital coastal shipping operations were severely hampered with extensive aerial mining by the US's Operation Starvation.
Regardless, these efforts did not succeed in persuading the Japanese military to surrender. These bombings were the first and only combat use of nuclear weaponry. These two bombs killed approximately , people in a matter of minutes, and as many as a result of nuclear radiation in the following weeks, months and years.
The bombs killed as many as , people in Hiroshima and 80, in Nagasaki by the end of This Soviet—Japanese War led to the fall of Japan's Manchurian occupation, Soviet occupation of South Sakhalin island, and a real, imminent threat of Soviet invasion of the home islands of Japan. This was a significant factor for some internal parties in the Japanese decision to surrender to the US  and gain some protection, rather than face simultaneous Soviet invasion as well as defeat by the US and its allies. Likewise, the superior numbers of the armies of the Soviet Union in Europe was a factor in the US decision to demonstrate the use of atomic weapons to the USSR, [ citation needed ] just as the Allied victory in Europe was evolving into the division of Germany and Berlin, the division of Europe with the Iron Curtain and the subsequent Cold War.
Having ignored mokusatsu the Potsdam Declaration , the Empire of Japan surrendered and ended World War II after the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki , the declaration of war by the Soviet Union and subsequent invasion of Manchuria and other territories. The Allied occupation, with economic and political assistance, continued until MacArthur included Article 9 which changed Japan into a pacifist country. Upon adoption of the constitution, the Empire of Japan became simply the state of Japan , and all overseas territories were lost.
The Kuril Islands also historically belonged to Japan  and were first inhabited by the Ainu people before coming under the control of the Matsumae clan during the Edo Period. Japan adopted a parliamentary-based political system, while the Emperor changed to a symbolic status. The US occupation forces were fully responsible for protecting Japan from external threats. Japan only had a minor police force for domestic security.
Japan was under the sole control of the United States. This was the only time in Japanese history that it was occupied by a foreign power. American General of the Army Douglas MacArthur later commended the new Japanese government that he helped establish and the new Japanese period when he was about to send the American forces to the Korean War :. The Japanese people, since the war, have undergone the greatest reformation recorded in modern history. With a commendable will, eagerness to learn, and marked capacity to understand, they have, from the ashes left in war's wake, erected in Japan an edifice dedicated to the supremacy of individual liberty and personal dignity; and in the ensuing process there has been created a truly representative government committed to the advance of political morality, freedom of economic enterprise, and social justice.
Politically, economically, and socially Japan is now abreast of many free nations of the earth and will not again fail the universal trust. I sent all four of our occupation divisions to the Korean battlefront without the slightest qualms as to the effect of the resulting power vacuum upon Japan. The results fully justified my faith.
I know of no nation more serene, orderly, and industrious, nor in which higher hopes can be entertained for future constructive service in the advance of the human race. In retrospect, apart from the military officer corps, the purge of alleged militarists and ultranationalists that was conducted under the Occupation had relatively small impact on the long-term composition of men of influence in the public and private sectors.
The purge initially brought new blood into the political parties, but this was offset by the return of huge numbers of formerly purged conservative politicians to national as well as local politics in the early s. In the bureaucracy, the purge was negligible from the outset.
In the economic sector, the purge similarly was only mildly disruptive, affecting less than sixteen hundred individuals spread among some four hundred companies. Everywhere one looks, the corridors of power in postwar Japan are crowded with men whose talents had already been recognized during the war years, and who found the same talents highly prized in the 'new' Japan.
In the administration of Japan dominated by the military political movement during World War II , the civil central government was under the management of military men and their right-wing civilian allies, along with members of the nobility and Imperial Family.
The Emperor was in the center of this power structure as supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Imperial Armed Forces and head of state. To coordinate operations, the Imperial General Headquarters , headed by the Emperor, was established in Prominent generals and leaders:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the former empire.
For the modern state, see Japan. Empire in the Asia-Pacific region between — Imperial Seal. The battleship Asahi. Azuchi—Momoyama Nanban trade. Japanese colonial campaigns. Pacific War. Main article: Bakumatsu. Main article: Boshin War. Main article: Meiji Constitution. This section needs expansion.
You can help by adding to it. February Main articles: Boxer Rebellion and Boxer Protocol. Main article: Russo-Japanese War. Main article: Korea under Japanese rule. See also: Japanese militarism. Further information: Imperial Rule Assistance Association. Main article: Second Sino-Japanese War. Main articles: Tripartite Pact and Axis powers. Main article: Occupation of Japan. Japan portal Fascism portal. Shinto was imposed on colonial lands in Taiwan and Korea, and public funds were utilized to build and maintain new shrines there. Shinto priests were attached to army units as chaplains, and the cult of war dead, enshrined at the Yasukuni Jinja in Tokyo, took on ever greater proportions as their number grew.
Within a few decades of the official beginning of the nation-building project, Tokyo had become the political and economic capital of a state that replaced semi-autonomous domains with newly created prefectures subordinate to central laws and centrally appointed administrators. UK: Routledge. The Invention of Religion in Japan. University of Chicago Press.
Japan's Preoccupation with Religious Freedom Ph. Princeton University. National Diet Library. Retrieved September 30, Jansen, p. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved October 2, January Sage Publications. Ben-Ami Shillony - Collected Writings. Moreover, Satow p. The Orthodox Church in Japan. February 1, Retrieved August 25, Berkeley: University of California Press. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. Retrieved October 3, Tsuruga city. Archived from the original on November 12, House of Representatives of Japan. November 16, Archived from the original on September 28, Retrieved October 10, Archived from the original on April 11, The Economist.
August 12, Retrieved November 26, Five Ministers Council. Japan Center for Asian Historical Record. December 6, Archived from the original on July 26, GMA News Online. Last Man Out. December 7, Archived from the original on December 4, The Cambridge History of Japan Vol. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The Kuril Islands. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Retrieved February 1, Archived from the original on June 30, Benesch, Oleg. The Cambridge History of Japan.
Jansen, Marius B. The Making of Modern Japan. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press. The Emergence of Meiji Japan. Hunter, Janet Concise Dictionary of Modern Japanese History. University of California Press. Keene, Donald Emperor of Japan: Meiji and His World, — New York: Columbia University Press. The Allied Occupation of Japan. Continuum Press. Tsutsui, William M. A Companion to Japanese History. Porter, Robert P. Japan: The Rise of a Modern Power.
Satow, Ernest Mason A Diplomat in Japan. Hotta, Eri Japan Countdown to Infamy. New York. Empire of Japan. Administration Ministries. Armed Forces. Imperial Japanese Army. Imperial Japanese Navy. Meiji period. World War I. Home fronts. Bulgarian mobilization Ottoman mobilization. Pacifism Anti-war movement. Category Portal. World War II. Africa Asia Europe. Bibliography Category Index Portal. Former external territories gaichi of Japan.
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