Dictionary of Economics: Over 3, 000 Terms Clearly Defined

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follow Language spoken most often at home. A coding list of languages was compiled, including the 11 official languages as well as other languages which are spoken in South Africa. A listing refers to a list of visiting points within an EA. For the purpose of the census, a live-in domestic worker was an employee of the household, for example a maid, gardener, driver or child-minder. Domestic workers who were living on the same premises as their employers were enumerated as separate households, and therefore apart from the households in which they were employed.

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Magisterial district and number. Administratively, the country is divided into nine provinces; the provinces are in turn divided into magisterial districts. Topographic and cadastral survey maps are available for each magisterial district. In view of the possibility of a person having more than one marital status , the question on this subject was limited to the marital status of the person at the time of enumeration. The following types of status were identified: Never married. Living together with partner. Migrant worker.

A migrant worker is a person who is absent from home or country for more than one month of a year for the purpose of finding work or working. This could be a mine worker, a factory worker or even a gardener or domestic worker. A person away from home country of origin but going home every weekend was, nevertheless, regarded as a migrant worker if the total period spent away from home was a month or more in a year.

Low-income measure after tax (LIM-AT)

A person who is normally away from home for more than a month in a year, but was at home on census night , was regarded as a migrant worker. Non-contact describes a situation where an enumerator failed to make contact with a household at an address which the enumerator visited. The non-contact would have occurred either because no-one was at home at the time of the visit or because a dwelling was not occupied at the time of the enumeration. The enumerator was required to make at least three visits to the physical address, leaving a note before contacting his or her supervisor chief enumerator on the matter.

A non-contact form was used to record failure by an enumerator to make contact with a household either because no one was at home at the time of the visit or because a dwelling was not occupied at the time of the visit. Non-urban areas also referred to as rural areas fall outside of legally-proclaimed urban areas, and include commercial farms, small settlements and rural villages. See urban area. The phrase not economically active refers to a person who was out of the labour market on census night. Occupation refers to the type of work an employed person does; for example, installing pipes in new houses, selling fruit and vegetables, breeding cattle, teaching primary school children, cleaning and cooking.

See code list for international standard classification of occupations, which forms part of the overall census metadata set. Overcount occurs when individuals or households are enumerated more than once during the census. This can happen when an individual or household migrates from one area where enumeration had been completed to another area where enumeration still had to take place during the time of enumeration.

It also occurs in cases where one individual is recorded in two households. See also Undercount. A pensioner is a person in retirement who draws a pension from a previous employer or a pension fund, or receives a state pension. Respondents were asked to indicate the population group into which they would classify themselves. Therefore self-description, rather than any other method, was used for classification purposes. The categories were:. Other, to be specified by the respondent.

Post-enumeration survey PES. The post-enumeration survey is a sample survey that was conducted shortly after fieldwork for the census had been completed. A stratified sample of EAs were drawn and a special questionnaire was administered. Various media were used during the campaign, including television, radio, and print.

Definition

A grassroots campaign, with posters and billboards distributed for display on taxis and buses, and the production of road shows, was also launched. In addition, pamphlets were sent to churches, comics were sent to all schools for distribution amongst the scholars, and a competition on the census was held for schools. Questionnaires were used to record information on the number of people in the country during the census and their demographic, social and economic characteristics.

They are defined separately in this glossary. A version of the institutional questionnaire was adapted to list and collect information on homeless persons. For more information, see questionnaire, institutional. This questionnaire was used to enumerate persons living in households. Thus the age, sex, education, employment status and annual income of each person in the household was collected in the individual section. Information on access to water, electricity, toilet facilities, telephones and refuse removal was collected from the household as a whole.

A single questionnaire accommodated a maximum of nine persons.

A second questionnaire was used when a household had more than nine members. The form excluded hostels. Instead, contents of the institutional questionnaire were summarised in a summary book for hostels, and residents of hostels completed either a personal or household questionnaire, depending on their particular circumstances. This form for institutions was also adapted to list homeless persons.

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This questionnaire was used in enumerating single individuals who lived in hostels, mining or farm compounds. Individuals enumerated in this manner were not living together as households even though they may have been sharing a room with another person or with other people. The q uestionnaire return number is the serial number assigned to each completed questionnaire in an EA, with the first completed questionnaire having been assigned a 1 unity and the subsequently completed ones assigned sequential numbers. If a household was enumerated on two questionnaires, each questionnaire had a separate return number although the return numbers would be consecutive.

A refusal form was filled in by an enumerator when a household refused to answer the questionnaire. A refusal occurred when a household refused to answer the questionnaire. In these circumstances the enumerator filled in a refusal form. Every effort was made by senior census officials to persuade the household to take part in the interview in those households where refusals occurred. Relationship to the head or acting head of the household. Each person in the household was asked to indicate his or her relationship to the head or acting head of the household.

Grandparent of the head or acting head. Grandchild of the head or acting head. Other relative e. Non-related person. This question in the census questionnaire was optional. The objective was to obtain information on the religious affiliations of the people in the country according to denomination if applicable. A retired person was defined as one who had ended his or her employment.

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See pensioner. Rooms refer to the informal divisions within a dwelling occupied by a household. The number of rooms occupied by a household excluded toilets and bathrooms. One household could occupy one or more rooms, and in some cases, more than one household could share the same room. A dwelling characterised by a round perimeter wall and a pointed roof, often but not necessarily made of thatch.

Cambridge English Dictionary: Meanings & Definitions

A person who is attending primary or secondary school. A person who works for himself or herself for financial gain without employing anyone else. Self-enumeration refers to the practice whereby certain respondents preferred to complete the census questionnaire themselves, instead of letting the enumerator fill in the questionnaire for them the wish of Stats SA.

In these cases, the enumerator left the questionnaire with the household concerned and collected it at a later stage after it had been completed. This was often the case in hard-to-reach households, especially in upper-income areas. A semi-urban area is not part of a legally proclaimed urban area, but adjoins it.

The term squatter areas is used as a synonym only for informal settlements. There are three types of squatter areas or informal settlements: those within municipal or local authority areas; those outside municipal or local authority boundaries; and those situated in rural areas. A person who attends a tertiary institution such as a college, a university or a technikon. A person who attends a tertiary institution such as a college, a university or a technikon on a full-time basis.

A person who attends a tertiary institution such as a college, a university or a technikon on a part-time basis. A townhouse is a private or self-contained dwelling with private grounds within a common ground for other dwellings. Undercount occurs when EAs, visiting points, households or individuals are missed during the census. It is usually measured by means of the post-enumeration survey. For the preliminary results only the question on whether a person was enumerated during the census or not was processed to calculate the undercount. For the final results the PES questionnaires were paired off with the census questionnaires to arrive at a more accurate and refined way of calculating undercount.

Also see overcount. Unemployment has two definitions. The first, the strict definition , or new official definition, refers to a situation where an economically active person had been looking for work four weeks prior to an interview, but had found none. An urban area is a settlement which has been legally proclaimed as being urban. Other areas are not regarded as urban, even if they are densely populated. These are the so-called squatter areas. Other urban areas may include mine, factory and municipal hostels, hospitals, prisons and other institutions contained within a local authority boundary.

The place where a person spends at least four nights a week. The place is identified by name, EA number and type. A vacant dwelling was a dwelling unoccupied on census night. A vacant stand refers to a visiting point which was listed in the 09 book but which, during enumeration, was found to have been demolished or no longer existed. A village is a settlement which is not urban or semi-urban area adjacent to an urban area. A visiting point is a physical address or a dwelling where a household or a group of households can be found.

It can be a house, shack, vacant stand, hotel, a room in a hostel, shop, house under construction, hut, tent, or a block of flats or apartments. There may be more than one household at one visiting point. A person who spent the c ensus night with a household but does not live with the household was regarded as a visitor. An activity in which a person is engaged for pay, profit or family gain or a combination of these three options. Formal work refers to economic activity in an organisation which is registered for value added tax VAT and has a VAT registration number.

See employment. Informal work refers to economic activity which takes place without a registered value added tax VAT number. Areas with high population or building density can be identified by aerial photographs which give a very good impression of the region and the parting line between urban and rural areas. These are often referred to as agglomerations or conurbations, but the boundaries seen do not necessarily correspond to the administrative jurisdiction of any given area. This means that a visually perceived urban conurbation may not relate to the specific mass of the statistical units routinely collected either within or partly around the area.

Besides, this definition characterizes too many regions as being urban to be useful to identify health problems related to population density. From the administrative perspective, there is no common definition of UAs or cities all over Europe. Administrative organizations vary from country to country because spatial structure and planning are organized in different ways and the importance of a town or city is often very much related to the surrounding areas.

Against the background of the worldwide view, even the UN suggests the use of national definitions rather than standardized ones. NUTS forms a hierarchical classification based on normative criteria administrative structure and subdivides a state into a whole number of NUTS 1 regions, each of which is in turn subdivided into a whole number of NUTS 2 regions which in turn are subdivided into NUTS 3 regions.

Exceptions are possible, e. The NUTS boundaries correspond to administrative units. But members of the same NUTS or LAU level may differ substantially in their importance for the surrounding areas and may belong to an agglomeration conurbation or may form an UA by themselves. Typically, these administrative units are responsible for the local government. The underlying idea was to group areas at NUTS level 3 or LAU level 1, which are adjacent and which are linked by some common economical and social functions. It was stressed as an advantage that the data availability regional statistics is relatively high.

The disadvantage of this concept is the consideration of administrative functional zones instead of UAs. There are some projects that work on the analysis of the European spatial structure. Some projects were found which were based on networks of cities. These included metrex Network of European Metropolitan Regions and Areas , 17 , eurocities Network of major European cities, founded in 18 and urbact integrated Urban Development Transnational Exchange with sub-projects, e.

The networks describe their goals and invite cities to become members of these networks if they are interested in those goals. According to these mechanisms, cities or agglomerations in the networks vary in size and are irregularly dispersed across Europe. Eighteen UAs were identified as 7 cities and 11 agglomerations. The recommendations offered different selection criteria taking into account the respective national situation.

These were densely populated areas the United Kingdom, Germany and Greece ; cities from all parts of the country Czech Republic ; the biggest cities Netherlands, Slovenia, Lithuania, Norway ; the capital city only Malta and two cities in Luxembourg.

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Effective Date of Amendment Amendment by section f of Pub. The principal reasons for this are the lack of any standardized reporting of such catches at global, regional or national level and the inability to resolve conflict with official reports of national fisheries catches. Some projects were found which were based on networks of cities. Of these 1 records, are quantitatively complete, i. Age of the child I gave this to:. The Shekel referred to an ancient unit of weight and currency. The raising of discard estimates is further discussed in Annex C.

None of the theoretical definitions found in the literature were capable of inclusively covering all the expert proposals. Information from all the sources described above have been systemized and checked for their feasibility to define UAs. No definition was found which could be used without modification. It was found that general definitions based on identical numbers or density of house or population in each member state would mainly identify UAs in the western part of EU.

Background

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The selection of UAs in a country should be made by the national person who is member of the EURO-URHIS project and each should perform the following steps: Select regions which are urban as an agglomeration or as a metropolitan area and which are potentially interesting in terms of public health. Identify the natural boundaries, where countryside ends and residential or commercial areas of the region begin e. Identify local government boundaries or other official boundaries used for routine data collection purposes which approximate the natural UA as closely as possible.

Table 5 Number of UAs per country. The number of UAs per country chosen for study was dependent on the population size of the respective country, as identified according to the algorithm defined above, within each country according to the following criteria:. Our literature search came up with the result that no general definition of an UA exists but that every field of research has its own definition according to the interests and the study questions. Geographical approaches lack a link to administrative boundaries and therefore would make it very difficult to collect health data.

Statistical approaches only concentrate on cities and may miss agglomerations which form an UA. An ideal definition on areas for urban health would have to include some properties which are contradictory. As we were looking for health aspects of an urban population, we would have liked to include population density as well as social criteria like higher percentages of elderly people and people living alone as well as structural indicators like public transport, density of physicians and hospitals.

These requirements would best be fulfilled by a definition used by geographers. Properties like those listed above might well be found outside of the administrative boundaries of a city. To be able to describe the health status of the population, we need statistical data, which should ideally be collected routinely without the need for special data collection projects.

Therefore, we need a definition based on administrative or governmental boundaries. Areas usually do not fulfil both requirements. A definition based on a fixed number of inhabitants would find UAs mainly in the western part of Europe, whereas in the smaller countries of Eastern Europe, the cities are also smaller. Problems of UAs concerning health may also arise in cities of East Europe despite lower population numbers within them. It seems reasonable therefore to conclude that the relative size of a city compared with the surrounding regions and to the country as a whole is more important for the classification as an UA than a defined absolute number of inhabitants.

The same consideration holds for indicators like centrality and economical importance of a city for the surrounding areas. Again they cannot solely be described with reference to absolute population numbers but have to take into account the national situation. In addition, the areas we are dealing with should constitute some kind of administrative unit because this is a necessary condition for the application of our results to health policy decision making.

This link between the cities and their countries is also acknowledged by other institutions like WHO and UN, in that they also use country specific definitions to categorize the cities in Europe and the world. Projects working with networks of cities in several countries go even further. They do not at all give general definitions as condition for the participation but offer partnership to cities which feel that they need to deal with the question which is treated in the respective project.

By involving national experts to define the UAs in their country, we make sure that we get cities connected to some of their surrounding areas not only geographically but also by their various aspects of urban life. Even if all the UAs in the project will not be comparable in absolute numbers, they are similar in their role within their respective country and therefore comparable according to the differences to the more rural areas around them. By formulating standardized appropriate criteria and leaving the decision to local experts, certain necessary standards are upheld while maintaining the unique characteristics of the countries and their regions.

Although this pragmatic approach was relevant to the purposes of the work in EURO-URHIS, and a similar approach might be taken in other contexts, the definition used is not generalizable and is likely to be subject to observer variation. There are some general definitions of urban areas UAs which are based mainly on indicators about population, housing density and economic aspects of a region. Some definitions define UAs in relation to the country where the region belongs to.

The categorization is mainly based on population numbers within administrative borders. Many research networks of cities are built on voluntary partners without a formal definition of criteria. For the EURO-URHIS study, UAs were defined according to an algorithm by national experts starting with an identification of metropolitan areas and restricting these to governmental administrative boundaries.

Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. The format argument here tells R how to read in the date character string, since dates can appear in a number of different formats, time zones, etc. For more information about how to format data with other dates, see? There appears to be an upward trend. There are many other types of sentiment analysis, which we do not have time to cover here. An important thing for you to know, however, is that different sentiment analysis tools work better for some corpuses than others.

Here is a figure from a recent paper that applies a vareity of different sentiment dictionaries to different corpora:. Dictionary-Based Text Analysis in R. Introduction Among the most basic forms of quantitative text analysis are word-counting techniques and dictionary-based methods. Word Counting In the early days of quantitative text analysis, word-frequency counting in texts was a common mode of analysis. Dictionary-Based Quantitative Text Analysis Though word frequency counts and tf-idf can be an informative way to examine text-based data, another very popular techniques involves counting the number of words that appear in each document that have been assigned a particular meaning or value to the researcher.