Eighteen groups of leading researchers explain the many different aspects and roles of fire in tropical ecosystems.
Regional chapters address a set of common subjects including the causes of fire, typical fire behavior, and elements of the fire regime. In addition, they study the impacts of human land use, landscape fragmentation and climate change on the fire environment and the challenges of fire management in these ecosystems. The common set of topics provides consi..
Special Order. Special Order items are usually fulfilled in weeks. Cannot combine other item s in one order. Makarieva, A. It is not possible to understand the apparent stability of the Earth's climate and environment unless we can fully understand how the best possible environmental conditions may be maintained for life to exist. Human colonization of areas with natural biota, for industrial or agricultural activities, will lead to degradation of those natural communities and violation of the BRE biotic regulation of the environment principle.
This book is devoted to a quantitative version..
Climatic Effects of Aerosols and Clouds. This is the first book to provide a complete overview of aerosol physics in climate research, containing details of work carried out in the former Soviet Union that has not been fully recognised in the West. This fourth volume of Light Scattering Reviews is composed of three parts. Light scattering by small particles such as, for instance, droplets in the terrestrial clouds is a well understood area of physical optics. On the other hand, exact theoretical calculations of light scattering p- terns for most of nonspherical and irregularly shaped particles can be performed only for the restricted values of the size parameter, which is proportional to the ratio of the characteristic size of the particle to the wavelength?.
For the large nonspherical parti..
Losev, Kim S. Ananicheva, Maria D. This book shows how human activity on local, regional and global scales has perturbed natural biogeochemical cycles, "colliding" with Nature. The authors demonstrate how the scale and intensity of human-induced destruction of Nature and resultant feedback mechanisms have continuously expanded.
They consider the likelihood of increasing numbers of natural disasters as a result of such activities, and propose that sustainable development become a principal research topic for the 21st Century. Light Scattering Media Optics. The theory of the scattering of light by small particles is very important in a wide range of applications in atmospheric physics and atmospheric optics, ocean optics, remote sensing, astronomy and astrophysics and biological optics.
This book summarises current knowledge of the optical properties of single small particles and natural light scattering media such as snow, clouds, foam aerosols etc. The book considers both single and multiple light scattering regimes, together with light scattering and radiative transfer in close-packed media. The third edition incorporates new findings in the area of light scattering media optics in an updated version of the text..
This book is a state-of-the-art review on the physics of space weather and on space weather impacts Part of the Springer Praxis Books book series (PRAXIS) . Read Space Weather: Physics and Effects (Springer Praxis Books) book reviews & author details and more at tacidysaze.tk Free delivery on qualified orders.
This book provides an account of recent developments in light scattering media optics. Leading researchers focus on both the theoretical and experimental results in the area. In particular, light scattering by ice crystals, soil particles and biological particles is considered. This volume first discusses single light scattering, followed by multiple light scattering and finally examines possible applications in combustion and marine research.
Lakes Ladoga and Onego are the greatest lakes in Europe. With a surface area of km sup 2 sup and a volume of km sup 3 sup , the former is one of the top fifteen world's freshwater lakes and is only slightly smaller than Lake Ontario. Lake Onego's surface area is km sup 2 sup and it has a volume of km sup 3 sup.
Their ecological state affects the water qual.. Species Richness: Patterns in the Diversity of Life. Patterns in the numbers of species have fascinated naturalists for centuries. Understanding the causes of latitudinal gradients in species richness and biodiversity 'hotspots' is often considered to be the holy grail of ecology.
Extinctions in the past offer insight into what may occur in the future under climate change and habitat loss. The subject of vegetation-climate interaction is a compelling issue scientifically and is also of importance for land management practices. This book examines the state of current understanding of species richness patterns and their explanations.
As well as the present day world it deals with diversification and extinction, i.. Numerical Regularization for Atmospheric Inverse Problems. The retrieval problems arising in atmospheric remote sensing belong to the class of the - called discrete ill-posed problems. These problems are unstable under data perturbations, and can be solved by numerical regularization methods, in which the solution is stabilized by taking additional information into account. The goal of this research monograph is to present and analyze numerical algorithms for atmospheric retrieval.
The book is aimed at physicists and engineers with some ba- ground in numerical linear algebra and matrix computations. Although there are many practical details in this book, for a robust and ef? This unique, authoritative book introduces and accurately depicts the current state-of-the art in the field of space storms. Professor Koskinen, renowned expert in the field, takes the basic understanding of the system, together with the pyhsics of space plasmas, and produces a treatment of space storms.
He combines a solid base describing space physics phenomena with a rigourous theoretical basis. The topics range from the storms in the solar atmosphere through the solar wind, magnetosphere and ionosphere to the production of the storm-related geoelectric field on the ground. The most up-to-date information available ist presented in a clear, analytical and qua.. In this research, we evolve Markov networks MNs shown in figure below , which are probabilistic finite state machines Edlund et al. These networks do not have the mentioned limiting assumptions on model structure and inputs.
These networks choose the most informative inputs and the optimal structure through the course of evolution for a given problem; therefore, evolution helps us to solve input selection and structure system identification problem simultaneously. Sunspot number time series from , showing the year cycles of solar activity. Before , the record is yearly and sporadic, after that we have monthly and daily data.
By using evolutionary algorithms, we are able to discover Markov networks that are able to predict SSN index accurately close to its theoretic prediction limit imposed by the chaotic nature of the signal.
We evolved Markov networks and predict daily SSN one-step ahead for different years and states of solar activity to compare its performance with other well-established methods. We found that on average Markov network had the best performance shown below. One step ahead prediction of daily sunspot number: a blue: actual sunspot number, red: one step ahead prediction.
Our ultimate goal in this project is to apply evolutionary algorithms to evolve Markov networks that are able to predict the solar and geomagnetic activity indexes near to their theoretic prediction limit imposed by the chaotic nature of space weather.