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From angels to superheroes, avian-human hybrids have been fixtures of myth, legend and art. In the 9th century, the celebrated Andalusian inventor Abbas ibn Firnas fashioned a pair of wings out of wood and silk, attached them to his back, covered the rest of his body in feathers, and jumped from a promontory. Leonardo da Vinci sketched scores of plans for winged, human-powered flying machines called ornithopters. Birdman won the best picture Oscar in Not everyone shared his caution. Advocates of radical human enhancement, or transhumanism, found inspiration in the article.

One of them, writing on a popular transhumanist blog, suggested that it might soon be possible to craft working human wings by combining surgical techniques with synthetic muscles and genetic modifications. But the ability of human beings to alter and augment themselves might expand enormously in the decades ahead, thanks to a convergence of scientific and technical advances in such areas as robotics, bioelectronics, genetic engineering and pharmacology. Progress in the field broadly known as biotechnology promises to make us stronger, smarter and fitter, with sharper senses and more capable minds and bodies.

And scientists can already use the much discussed gene-editing tool CRISPR, derived from bacterial immune systems, to rewrite genetic code with far greater speed and precision, and at far lower cost, than was possible before. Scientists can mix and match bits of DNA from different species, creating real-life chimeras. Critics take a darker view, suggesting that biological and genetic tinkering is more likely to demean or even destroy the human race than elevate it.

The public is not going to approach transhumanism as a grand moral question but rather as a set of products and services, each offering its own possibilities for self-expression and self-definition. Whatever people sense is missing in themselves or their lives — the power of winged flight, perhaps — they will seek to acquire with whatever means possible.

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We are myth-makers as well as tool-makers, and biotechnology promises to return us to a more mythical existence, as we deploy our new tools in an effort to bring our dream selves more fully into the world. They would leap from a ledge near the point and glide in their wingsuits for a quarter mile over the valley before passing through a notch in a ridgeline near a rock outcropping called Lost Brother. They would then unfurl their parachutes and come in for a landing in a clearing on the valley floor.

Rapp would take photographs. BASE jumping, one of the more extreme of extreme sports, is banned in national parks. They had been jumping for years from cliffs and peaks throughout Yosemite, including the iconic Half Dome, and they had wingsuited from Taft Point several times, together and separately. Catch and release: A practice within fly fishing intended as a technique of conservation. Chironomid: A scientific name for the members of the Diptera family of insects commonly known as midges. Clinch Knot: A universally used knot for attaching a hook, lure, swivel, or fly to the leader or line; a slight variation results in the Improved Clinch Knot, which is an even stronger knot for the above uses.

Fact or Fiction: Can a Squid Fly out of Water?

Cone Head: Same as a beadhead but the bead is cone shaped. Covering or Delivery : Used to describe the action of casting the fly to a fish or into a promising-looking area of water. Current Seam or Seam : Current seams are formed by the nature of current flow. Damselfly: An important still water aquatic insect most commonly imitated in the nymphal form, with hatches usually occurring in early to mid-summer.

Dead Drift: A perfect float in which the fly is traveling at the same pace as the current, used in both dry fly and nymph fishing see Mending Line and "S" Cast. Delivery or Covering : Used to describe the action of casting the fly to a fish or into a promising-looking area of water. Disc Drag: A mechanical system on more expensive fly reels intended to efficiently slow and tire a fish that is taking line. Dorsal Fin: The fin on the back of a fish, sometimes divided into two or three partly or entirely separate sections.

Double Haul: In this cast the fly fisher quickly pulls and releases the line on both the back cast and the forward cast. Double Taper DT : A standard fly line design in which both ends of the line are tapered, while the greater portion or "belly" of the line is level. Drag: 1 An unnatural motion of the fly caused by the effect of the current on line and leader. Drag-Free Drift: This is accomplished when you minimize the effect of the current flow on the fly.

Drift: Four types of drifts: Straight upstream from you, upstream and across from you, downstream and across from you, straight downstream from you see Fishing the Drift. Dropper: A practice of fishing two flies at the same time, often one on the surface and a second underwater. Dry Fly: Any fly fished upon the surface of the water, usually constructed of non-water-absorbent materials.

Dry Fly Floatant: Chemical preparation that is applied to a dry fly to waterproof it immediately before use; may be a paste, liquid, or aerosol. Dun: 1 First stage in the adult mayfly's life cycle, usually of short duration of 1 to 24 hours. Eddy: A section of water that is less disturbed than the surrounding water, often found on the edge of a current or where two streams converge.

Elbow Control: The idea in the overhead and roll cast is to obtain a tight, wind-cutting loop that will roll line accurately to the target. Holding the elbow "on the shelf" is much easier done when the feet are placed as described in the Stance. Emerger: Pertaining to aquatic insects, the name used to describe that time frame when the nymph reaches the surface and the adult hatches out. False Cast: A standard fly fishing cast used to lengthen and shorten line, change direction and to dry off the fly; frequently overused. Ferrule : A collar that is found at the point where sections of a fly rod are joined.

Fingerling: A small, immature fish, such as a juvenile trout. Fishing the Drift: This is the process of fishing from your target point to where you will pick up the line for your next cast. Fish Ladder: A series of interconnected pools created up the side of a river obstruction, such as a dam, to allow salmon and other fish to pass upstream. Floatant: A water-proofing usually oily salve or cream that is used to help flies, leaders and fly lines float. Fluorocarbon: Tippet or leader material that is virtually invisible underwater, sinks quickly and doesn't reflect light on the water surface so fish can't see it.

Fly: A hand-tied artificial lure imitating natural insects or baitfish to entice fish. Flies incorporate different natural and synthetic materials wound onto or otherwise secured on hooks. Fly Line: Special line designed for fly fishing. Fly Pattern: Also called a 'recipe,' this is the fixed design of materials and positioning of parts that make up an artificial fly.

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O fly not, love, O do not fly me, Stay awhile, but awhile O stay thee, My darling sweet, O stay thee. Hear Corydon complaining. His grief through. It has no guides, ferrules or reel seat. Fly rods are produced by wrapping sheets of fiberglass and graphite material around a carefully tapered steel rod (called a.

Fly Reel: Fishing reel used in fly fishing to hold the fly line. Fly Rod: A type of fishing rod especially designed to cast a fly line. Fly Tying: The process of building fishing flies by hand using thread and various natural and synthetic materials. Forceps: A hand-operated medical instrument widely used in fly fishing to remove flies from the jaws of a hooked fish. Forward or Power Stroke: In fly fishing, casting is a back-and-forth motion of the rod and line that allows you to place your fly where you'd like.

Foul Hook: To hook a fish anywhere but in the mouth.

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Still, we wonder: How much is that one vacation really hurting anyone, or anything? In , a few weeks before the world championships in Estonia, Maxine outscored Rajeff in trout fly accuracy at the national championships in Kentucky. Pools also give fish a rest from swimming against heavier currents, particularly important during spawning migrations. I looked over at business travelers who showed up an hour before the flight, cruised through their no-wait check-in counter, waited in a private club room, sat in comfortable seats, ate gourmet dinners, claimed their bags first, and accrued mega-miles for their travels. Fewer bugs in faster water usually results in fewer but more opportunistic trout. In some limited circumstances, such as to resolve disputes, troubleshoot problems, and enforce our policies, we may retain some of information that you have requested us to remove.

Freestone: A type of river or stream with a significant gradient, resulting in medium to fast-moving water. Fry: The first stage of a fish after hatching from an egg. Gel-spun polyethylene: A synthetic fiber that is extremely thin, supple, slippery, abrasion resistant and strong.

Graphite: The most popular rod-building material in use today, graphite offers the best weight, strength and flex ratio of any rod building material currently available. Gravel Guards: Flaps on each wader leg that hook over wading boots to further secure the waders and to prevent debris from getting inside the wading boots. Grip: The cork handle of a fly rod, generally made of cork rings shaped in several different ways including a cigar grip, full-wells grip and half-wells grip. Hatch: A large number of flies of the same species. Haul: A pull on the fly line with the non-casting hand to increase the line speed to gain greater distance.

Headwaters: An upstream section of the river before the main tributaries join it. Hemostat: A clamp or forceps used by fly fishermen to remove flies from the mouths of trout. Hook: The foundation upon which the fly is tied. Hook Keeper: Made of a loop of thin wire built into the shaft of the fly rod near the grip, a keeper safely secures the fly while still attached to the line. Imitative Flies: Tied to more closely match specific insects, imitative flies are most effective on finicky trout living in clear, fertile, slow-moving streams supporting large populations of aquatic insects.

Impressionistic Flies: Tied to loosely suggest a variety of insects or insect families, impressionistic flies are usually most effective in streams with medium to fast water with less dense populations of aquatic insects. Improved Clinch Knot: One of the most widely used fishing knots, it provides a good method of securing a fishing line to a hook, lure, or swivel. Indicator or Strike Indicator : A floating object placed on the leader or end of the fly line to "indicate" the take of the fly by a fish or to indicate the path of the drift of the fly.

Jumping Rise: This is when a trout comes out of the water to catch a rising insect, possibly indicating a caddis hatch is occurring. Knotless Tapered Leader: A fly fishing leader entirely constructed from a single piece of monofilament. Knotted Leader: A fly fishing leader constructed by knotting sections of different diameter leader material to each other to make a tapered leader.

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Large Arbor: Compared to a standard fly reel's narrow 'arbor,' the diameter of the line-holding area on a large arbor reel is a wider. Larva: The immature, aquatic, growing-stage of the caddis and some other insects. Lay Down after the pick-up : A fly fishing cast using only a single back cast. Leader: The section of monofilament line between the fly line and the fly. Lie: The areas in a river or lake where fish hang out, optimum lies are typically out of the main current, present cover from predators or provide a good source of insects and other food.

Line Weight: The weight of the first 30 feet of a fly line determines the line weight of a rod or reel. Loading the Rod: When either a forward or backward cast is made, the weight of the line puts a bend in the rod thus 'loading' or storing the energy necessary for the ensuing forward or backward cast. Loop to Loop: A way to connect a fly line and a leader by making a loop at the end of the leader ' using a Perfection Loop knot ' and joining it to a loop at the end of the fly line. Matching The Hatch: An attempt by a fly angler to select an artificial fly that imitates the color, size, shape and behavior of natural insects that fish are feeding on at a particular time.

Mayfly: Commonly found in cold or cool freshwater environments, mayflies are the most commonly imitated aquatic insects worldwide. Mid-Arbor: This refers to the size of area of a reel that holds the fly line. Minimizing Stream Current Drag: Mending your line by throwing a loop of line into the drifting line can help it to move at the same speed as the current, reducing current drag. Mending Line: A method used after the line is on the water to achieve a drag-free float.

Monofilament: A clear, supple nylon filament used in all types of fishing that is available in many breaking strengths and diameters see: Breaking Strength. Nail Knot: A method used to attach a leader or butt section of monofilament to the fly line and of attaching the backing to the fly line; most commonly tied using a small diameter tube ' such as section of a plastic coffee stirrer ' rather than a nail. Narrow Loop: As the fly line travels through the air it should form a narrow loop to cut wind resistance. In appearance a narrow loop resembles the letter "U" turned on its side and is formed by using a narrow casting arc.

Nymph: The immature form of insects. Nymphing: Describes fish actively feeding on nymphs as well as the method of fishing imitation nymph patterns ' typically weighted flies and added split-shot on the leader fished under a strike indicator ' to catch them. Open Loop: The signature cast where the loop 'opens' as it travels through the air.

Overhead Cast: This is the traditional fly rod cast most people associate with fly fishing. Palming: Gently applying the palm of your hand against the spool edge of a fly reel is an effective method to help slow the release of line when fighting large fish. Pause: This is the part just before you begin your pickup.

Pectoral Fins: The pair of fins just behind the head of a fish. Pelvic Fins: The pair of fins on the lower body of a fish; also called ventral fins. Perfection Loop: This is a knot often used to create a loop in a piece of monofilament, frequently at the butt end of a leader for the loop-to-loop connection. Pickup and Lay Down : In this part, you lift the fly line off water by moving your hand, wrist, forearm and upper arm in an upward arc.

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Polarized Sun Glasses: Sunglasses with iodized lenses that block incident light glare and thus allow anglers to better see beneath the surface glare of water. Pool: A segment of a river or stream featuring slower currents and increased depths that helps protect fish from predatory birds and animals. Presentation: The act of casting the fly on the water and offering it to the fish. Pupa: In insects, the transition stage between the larva and the adult.

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Reach Cast: A cast used for adding extra slack in the line, or when fishing downstream, in order to provide a more natural float. Redd: A hollow scooped in the sand or gravel of a riverbed by breeding trout or salmon as a spawning area. Reel Seat: A mechanism that holds the reel to the rod, usually using locking metal rings or sliding bands. Retrieve: Bringing the fly back toward the caster after the cast is made.

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Riffle: A quickened flow of water over smaller rocks or gravel, either at the head or tail of a pool. Riparian: A term that describes anything of, inhabiting, or situated on a riverbank; often used in connection with ownership and fishing rights. Rise: Rise forms are the patterns a trout makes as it takes a fly.

River Load or Water Tension Cast: This is a cast, motion or technique where the caster uses the river's current to load the rod. Rocks: Rocks provide a break in the current, allowing fish to station themselves in front of and behind them to feed, particularly medium to large rocks. Rod Flex: The manner in which the rod bends during the cast during the acceleration phases of the cast, forward or back. Roll Cast: This is a main cast every fly fisher should master. Run: A place where the water comes in between a bank and a rock or between two rocks.

Scud: A small freshwater shrimp-like crustacean that is present in most trout waters and serves as a food source for trout; very prevalent in spring creeks. Seam Current Seam : see Current Seam Seam Water: The area where two current flows comes together one slower, one faster , ideal for holding trout.

Sea-run: Trout that that hatch in fresh water, migrate to the sea to mature and return to fresh water to spawn are known as sea-runs.

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Setting the Hook: The act of pulling the hook into the flesh of the fish's mouth. Shank: The long straight part of the hook between the eye and the bend. We sometimes use this information to communicate with you, such as to notify you when you have won one of our contests, when we make changes to subscriber agreements, to fulfill a request by you for an online newsletter, or to contact you about your account with us. We do not use your personal information to make automated decisions. We may syndicate the publicly available content of our community areas to unaffiliated third-party websites, using RSS or other technologies.

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