Such criteria will help applicants prepare an appropriate application for authorisation of food enzymes.
The guidance also includes a decision tree to facilitate this categorisation. Online Information Centre. Is this page useful? Yes No. How can we improve this website? Facebook Twitter. Main Menu. Search field. Search button. What are enzymes and food enzymes?
What specifically are food enzymes used for? How are enzymes named and classified?
What is the legal position in the European Union in relation to food enzymes? What is the scope of the Regulation on food enzymes? Is the EU list of authorised food enzymes available? Can food enzymes be used in the absence of the authorised EU list?
How are food enzyme applications complied and submitted? Such information will be made available to Member States by the EC. How should food enzymes be labelled on food products? Access latest updates. Online Information Centre Current food safety issues which may be of interest to the food industry More about our online information centre. How can we improve this page? Send message. Enzymes are biodegradable and, unlike many inorganic catalysts, cause less damage to the environment. Enzyme Technology 2. The micro-organisms such as yeast are really used as a source of enzymes during the manufacture of these products of biotechnology Many industrial processes now make use of pure sources of enzymes, i.
Serial no. Rennet protease Coagulant in cheese production 2. Lactase Hydrolysis of lactose to give lactose-free milk products 3. Protease Hydrolysis of whey proteins 4 Catalases Removal of hydrogen peroxide 6. Some examples: Pectinases and Cellulases are used to break down cell walls in fruit and vegetables, resulting in improved extraction and increase in yield.
Cellulases, beta-glucanases, alpha amylases, proteases, maltogenic amylases For liquefaction, clarification and to supplement malt enzymes 2. Amyloglucosidase Conversion of starch to sugar 8. Brewing Food enzymes aid brewers in cutting down production time and cost while still delivering the quality product that consumers have come to expect. Such enzymes are specifically selected to perform highly specific tasks and improve the overall effectiveness of the process. Alpha-amylases Breakdown of starch, maltose production 2.
Amyloglycosidases Saccharification 3. Maltogen amylase Novamyl Delays process by which bread becomes stale 4. Protease Breakdown of proteins 5. Pentosanase Breakdown of pentosan, leading to reduced gluten production Meat Protease Meat tenderising 3. Protein Proteass, trypsin, aminopeptidases Breakdown of various components 4. Starch Alpha amylase, glucoamylases, hemicellulases, amylases, Modification and conversion eg to dextrose or high fructose syrups 5.
Insulin Inulinases Production of fructose syrup During starch processing, enzymes help to separate raw milled cereals into polysaccharides, gluten and fibres. Enzymes are also used to further break down the long chains of sugars polysaccharides into multiple sugars e. Benefits for the starch processors: - Efficient and better starch conversion into valuable products: glucose, maltose, high fructose and other syrups - Increased capacity utilisation during conversion, due to rapid viscosity reduction and low fouling frequency of process equipment such as evaporators - Improved starch purity due to greater extraction yield from raw materials, and efficient removal of fibres and proteins - Energy savings due to less use of process water, lower evaporator costs and decreased production time.
Alpha-amylase: Converts starch to dextrins in producing corn syrup. Solubilizes carbohydrates found in barley and other cereals used in brewing.
The second example underlines the enhancement of the pH-activity profile and of the thermostability of phytase from A. Other examples can be found elsewhere [ , ]. Brewing enzymes Profit from the power of brewing enzymes and sharpen your competitive edge with cost-effective production, optimal raw material use and higher yield. The first is directed evolution of enzymes, through random mutagenesis and recombination, where the environmental adaptation is reproduced in-vitro in a much hastened timescale, towards the optimization of the intended property. Pitcher W.
Glucoamylase: Conversion of dextrins to glucose in the production of corn syrup. Conversion of residual dextrins to fermentable sugar in brewing for the production of "light" beer. Beta-glucanase: Breakdown of glucans in malt and and other materials to aid in filtration after mashing in brewing. Rennet contains enzymes that coagulate milk causing it to separate into solids curds and liquid whey.
The curds are then used for cheese production. Enzymes have traditionally been sourced from the tissues of plants and animals, where they occur naturally. However, microorganisms such as mould and fungi can also be used to produce vast quantities of enzymes. Microbial production has many advantages over plant and animal sources. This frees companies from having to rely on a regular supply of enzyme-rich, plant or animal based materials, which may be expensive to collect and transport, and which will also need processing and purifying before use.
A processing aid is a substance added during food processing for technical reasons, but which has no function e. Most enzymes are also inactivated broken down during processing and are no longer technically active in the final product, although a residue will often remain.
However, enzymes have hugely important functional roles during food processing. Despite their widespread use in the UK, there is little specific legislation regarding the use of enzymes.
Throughout the EU they are regulated as processing aids, covered by laws which vary from country to country. It is worth noting that there is neither safety evaluation nor authorisation of food enzymes at European level, except for those that are considered as food additives of which there are just two enzymes, E and E As with food additives, terms such as these can be subject to very loose interpretation by both the food industry and its regulators. Assuming the proposal is accepted, companies will be allowed a period of two years to submit data for evaluation, so we are unlikely to see any progress until after Perhaps surprisingly, we can be sure that almost all vegetarian cheese has been produced using enzymes from GM microorganisms.
The GM process is approved by the Vegetarian Society, who regard it, in this instance, as a preferable alternative to the wholesale slaughter of calves. The only way to avoid GM produced enzymes is to purchase organic food, as organic standards completely forbid all use of GM ingredients or derivatives. Whether you prefer a slice of white, a french baguette or a seed-encrusted granary loaf, almost all the commercially manufactured bread in the UK is made with enzymes.
Enzymes allow manufacturers to significantly pump up loaf volume, adjust texture, produce a better crust colour and prolong shelf life. Enzymes can even give bread a whiter appearance. What most of us would recognise as a modern loaf would be impossible to produce without enzymes.
But what does all this mean for the consumer? Andrew Whitley, an artisanal baker and writer, warns that some enzymes are potential allergens, notably the very widely used alpha-amylase used in baking to break starches down into sugars, for yeast to feed on. Bakery workers can become sensitised to enzymes from bread improvers, and industry experts warn that liquid or granular preparations of enzymes are safer than powdered forms, because of the allergenic potential of enzyme dust. Whitley has also revealed that an enzyme called transglutaminase, which may be used to make dough stretchier in croissants and some breads, may render part of the wheat protein toxic to people with a severe gluten intolerance.
Such unintended and unanticipated effects suggest that the safety testing of some enzymes may not be up to scratch, and raises the possibility of other, as yet unnoticed, side affects. However, unless enzymes are fully labelled on ingredients lists, it will be virtually impossible to correlate possible side effects in the general population with enzyme use.